Tuesday, July 26, 2022

Art Eyewitness Review: New York: 1962-1964 at the Jewish Museum, New York City


New York: 1962-1964  

Jewish Museum, New York City

July 22, 2022 - January 8, 2023

Reviewed by Ed Voves

Original Photography by Anne Lloyd

One Thousand Days. This was the title of one of the most praised and popular non-fiction books of the 1960's. Written by Arthur Schlesinger Jr., One Thousand Days chronicled President John F. Kennedy's administration, from his inauguration in January 1961 to the fatal Friday in Dallas, November 22, 1963.

The Jewish Museum in New York City has just opened a brilliant and ambitious exhibition surveying the American art scene during a similar span of the early 1960's. The chronology is not an exact fit, but it's close. The years covered by the exhibition extend from 1962 to 1964.

Why these three years? The course of events during this period marked the  abrupt transition from the ironclad ascendancy of Abstract Expressionism to the wide-open, consumer-conscious theater of Pop Art. Social ideals, in keeping with the political goals of President Kennedy's New Frontier and the Civil Rights movement, likewise made their presence felt.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Gallery view of New York:1962-1964 at the Jewish Museum, showing Donald Judd's Untitled,1963

New York: 1962-1964 is a big, colorful art show, currently spread over two floors at the Jewish Museum. The exhibition guides us through these eventful years with major works of art and provocative gallery texts about the role of culture in American society. 

Yet, there is nostalgic touch to New York: 1962-1964 which will appeal to those old enough to remember the Camelot years - and to later generations still affected by its mystique. 

                                       Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)                                               Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, with a vintage jukebox,        courtesy of New York Jukebox

The exhibit opens by displaying a jukebox, that potent symbol of Sixties pop culture. 

Pick a song. "Love is a Swingin' Thing" by the Shirelles? "Leader of the Pack" by the Shangrilas? The curators of the Jewish Museum selected a soundtrack of "hit tunes" which will have you dancing through the first floor galleries.

Then, on the second floor, the mood changes. A poignant and powerful array of JFK-related memorabilia and works of art awaits. As with the actual events, 59 years ago, the shocking assassination of President Kennedy casts a sense of mourning over the rest of the exhibition.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Walter Cronkite Reporting the Assassination of President Kennedy; Andy Warhol's Jackie Frieze (detail), 1964

A six minute video-loop of Walter Cronkite, grappling with his emotions as he announced the death of President Kennedy, and Andy Warhol's Jackie Frieze are on view. Both are still heart-wrenching after all these years.

At this point, we should ask a further question related to the years, 1962-1964. Why did the Jewish Museum decide to focus on these "thousand days" of art for a major exhibition? The answer can be found in the dynamic role of the Jewish Museum itself during this period.

In March 1962, a much-anticipated display of drawings and paintings by Willem de Kooning opened at the Sidney Janis Gallery. Surprisingly, the show occasioned hostile criticism and poor sales. A few months later, the Janis Gallery tried a different tack with an exhibit highlighting younger artists, entitled New Realists.

The exhibition opened on October 31, 1962, only days after the Cuban Missile crisis. The New York art scene was sharply divided as Pop Art came to town with Andy Warhol's 200 Campbell Soup Cans leading the charge. The New York Times styled New Realists as "mad, mad, wonderfully mad" but "welcome." The "Ab-Ex" establishment, however was infuriated, with Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell and others severing ties with the Janis Gallery.

Navigating his way through this crossfire of contention, Dr. Alan Solomon (1920-1970) took over the directorship of the Jewish Museum in July 1962. His two-year tenure at the museum anchors the time-line of this exhibition.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Alan Solomon being interviewed at the Venice Biennale, June 27, 1964

An outstanding scholar and curator, Solomon turned the Jewish Museum into a major forum for appreciating modern art. Solomon had a keen insight into the art of his own era and promoted young, innovative artists. He mounted exhibitions of the work of Robert Rauschenberg (1963) and Jasper Johns (1964) at the Jewish Museum. These were watershed events at the time and, decades later, provide the foundation for New York:1962-1964.

Hans Namuth, Photo (1963) 
Gallery view of the Jewish Museum's Robert Rauschenberg exhibit 

Art works by Rauschenberg and Johns figure prominently in the Jewish Museum exhibit. What especially impresses me, however, is the diversity of artists included in the show, not just the big names, and the strikingly off-beat curatorial values. Both were hallmarks of Solomon's methodology at the Jewish Museum.

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Robert Rauschenberg's Talisman, 1958

Solomon had particular regard for Rauschenberg's "combines." These were created from a wide-variety of materials, pieced-together to evoke moods and modes of life, often defying easy comprehension.

Such works, Solomon stated in an influential 1963 essay, were rooted in an "intense passion for direct experience, for unqualified participation in the richness of our immediate world."

There can be no better description or summing-up of the works of art on view in New York: 1962-1964.

A huge, multi-paneled oil painting entitled The Eye of Lightning Billy dominates the first gallery of the exhibition. Painted by an Oklahoma-born artist named Harold Stevenson, it appeared in the New Realists exhibition in October 1962. An impressive, if alarming, work, this depiction of the eye of a Native American cowboy leaves the viewer wondering just who is watching whom.

 Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Harold Stevenson's The Eye of Lightning Billy, 1962

We are left to question too about the identity of this work. Is The Eye of Lightning Billy a Realist painting?  Is it Pop Art or perhaps Surrealism? All or none of the above?

For Solomon, works like The Eye of Lightning Billy did not fit securely into a narrowly defined artistic canon or "school." And that is exactly what he wanted, art which was drawn from everyday life, “familiar, public, and often disquieting.” 

Solomon referred to the works he promoted at the Jewish Museum as the  "New Art." This was a revival of the title initially used to describe the paintings of Monet, Renoir and Pissarro by the critic Edmund Duranty in 1874, before the originally scornful term, Impressionism, was adapted as a badge of honor. Like his nineteenth century forebearers, Solomon championed art that was experimental and expressive, yet rooted in the "here and the now."

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Louise Nevelson's Sky Cathedral’s Presence I, 1959-1962

That, at least initially, was the backdrop for Louise Nevelson's ominous Sky Cathedral’s Presence I, created over the course of 1959–62. Nevelson watched the destruction of New York City's working class neighborhoods to make way for the "urban renewal" plans of Robert Moses. 

After being evicted from her residence in the Kips Bay neighborhood of New York City, Nevelson responded to Moses' "slum clearance," by collecting  castaway objects, just as Rauschenberg was doing. With these and thick layers of black paint, Nevelson created Sky Cathedral’s Presence I

     Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Louise Nevelson's Sky Cathedral’s Presence I (detail)

Nevelson's art, however, was not merely reactive. Sky Cathedral's Presence I was deeply grounded in spiritual ideals. With this powerful sculpture, and similar works produced over the following years, Nevelson aimed to reach "the in-between places, the dawns and dusk, the objective world, the heavenly spheres, the places between the land and the sea." 

For many people during  the early 1960's, the image of "heavenly spheres" did not have much to do with "in-between places." Rather, they thought in terms of the Project Mercury rockets which launched NASA astronauts like John Glenn into orbit. Except for a fortunate few able to travel to the beaches near Cape Canaveral, watching the Project Mercury lift-offs was done from a reclining armchair positioned in front of a television set. 

        Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing period furnishings, including Eames Chair & Ottoman and Magnavox television

The idea of "home entertainment centers" with wide-screen monitors and Dolby Sound was beyond the wildest dreams of all but a few tech-savvy engineers during the 1960's. But to watch a NASA rocket blasting into Outer Space on a TV in your living room was still a big deal. 

The impact of television was felt everywhere in the Sixties' art world. Rauschenberg embraced the televised, black and white drama of a NASA space launch in Glider

   Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Robert Rauschenberg's Glider, 1962

Not surprisingly for a work by Rauschenberg, one really has to search Glider to find the rocket blasting-off, positioned just above a human hand on the left hand side of the canvas.

If Rauschenberg engaged with television, Andy Warhol's Empire reacted in direct contrast. In many an American home, the "boob tube" droned relentlessly from morning till midnight. Warhol directed a 16 mm camera to record what everyone was missing while they watched TV - the effect of light, natural and electric, as reflected on and around the spire of skyscraper.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Andy Warhol's Empire, 1964

The skyscraper was, of course, the Empire State Building, making for a dramatic setting. Nothing much happened,however, in the eight-hour filming session, the sun set and the building lights came on. Yet, Warhol and his film-making partners, Jonas Mekas and John Palmer, had captured a moment of astonishing transcendence - "as though the world had been recreated" to quote an appreciative critic. 

Thanks to the curators of New York: 1962-1964, we are able to relive that moment.

Few people have the time or patience to watch an eight-hour film. For most Americans of Warhol's era, it was the appliances and accoutrements of their "Affluent Society" that interested them. The Jewish Museum curators have done a terrific job in evoking the material culture of the early 1960's, clock radios, electric coffee pots, slick magazines and stylish apparel like Evelyn Jablow's Fold-Up Dress for a Portable Society (1964). 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 1960's Kitchen appliances: Lloyd’s high fidelity AM/FM tube radio, an Osterizer Beehive blender and General Electric's two-slice toaster

Another dress appeared the same year, 1964, as the Fold-Up: the topless Monokini bathing suit. Designed by Rudi Gernreich, it was intended as a protest against America's puritanical values (according to Gernreich). Whether that was true - or just a clever sales technique - the advertisement and sale of the Monokini led to a storm of controversy. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
            From left: Rudi Gernriech's Monokini, Geoffrey Beene's  Evening Dress & Evelyn Jablow's Fold-Up Dress for a Portable Society 

GIven the sheer number of topics covered in New York, 1962-1964, the Jewish Museum curators wisely avoid detailed commentary on these debates. But the Monokini's inclusion in the exhibition does set the stage for art works by woman artists who very much wanted to protest against the treatment of the female body as an "object" available at your local newstand in "pin-up" magazines. 

Marjorie Strider and Marisol Escobar, in different ways, asserted the right of women to define own identities, free from societal expectations or male desires..

        Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
                     Roy Lichtenstein's Thinking of Him, 1963, at left,                     and Marjorie Strider's Girl with Radish,1963

Strider's Girl with Radish, 1963, appeared in a 1964 exhibit, The First International Girlie Show, along with works by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and. Rosilyn Drexler, who is also featured in New York: 1962-1964. "Girlie Show" was one of the first Pop exhibits and many critics regarded Strider's painting - and Pop generally - as a stunt rather than serious art. Strider, however, was not joking with her confrontational reworking of comic book sexuality.

Kristina Parsons, one of the Jewish Museum curators of New York, 1962-1964, comments on Strider's "engagement with the power dynamics of voyeurism." Strider, Parsons notes, "combines a kind of sly humor and a little bit of bite. Strider often features women who are staring deliberately out at the viewer, rejecting the one-directional gaze of an often male viewer consuming a female's image."

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Marisol (Marisol Escobar) Self-Portrait, 1961-62

Marisol Escobar, or simply Marisol, joined with Rauschenberg and Nevelson in reusing debris from the "throw-away" society around her as source material for her art. She even somehow found human teeth to use in the mouths of the figures comprising the identities of her Self-Portrait.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Marisol's Self-Portrait (detail), 1961-62

Just who are these enigmatic folks? Only one of the seven faces looks like Marisol herself. Two, maybe three, are male and who the duck-billed creature might be is anyone's guess. Do they represent various facets of Marisol's personality?

Perhaps the best explanation for this remarkable work of art is that Marisol created it to deliberately leave us guessing. While we are scratching our heads in bemusement, Marisol affirms that she - and she alone - defines her own, true, identity.

Artistic statements are, for the most part, personal manifestos. Most of the works on the first floor galleries of New York: 1962-64 are individual responses to events transpiring during those incredible years. But art has a community, collegial "ethic" and the Jewish Museum exhibition does not neglect this aspect of the early 1960's.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Gallery view of New York:1962-1964,
 showing Robert Rauschenberg costumes for Antic Meet

Modern dance played a major role in the New York cultural scene during the 1960's. Although Solomon was not directly involved with dance, Rauschenberg was. He designed costumes for Merce Cunningam's  company, provided sets and choreography for the Judson Dance Theater and even danced himself in one production, on roller skates with a parachute suspended on his shoulders!

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
 Isamu Noguchi's Shrine of Aphrodite for the ballet Phaedra

The Jewish Museum exhibits several of Rauschenberg's costumes for Merce Cunningham's Antic Meet. Also on view is the spectacular stage prop, the Shrine of Aphrodite designed by Isamu Noguchi for the controversial 1962 ballet, Phaedra, by Martha Graham.

Artists, acting with a sense of community, found unity in social action, which in turn led many to create powerful works of art supporting the Civil Rights Movement. Most of the artists whose works are on view in New York: 1962-1964, lived and worked in run-down areas of Lower-Manhattan. Labeled the "Loft Generation" they had a natural sympathy with African-Americans battling against segregation and discrimination.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Faith Ringold's American People #4: The Civil Rights Triangle, 1964

The extensive array of art related to the Civil Rights era, on view in New York: 1962-1964, is truly impressive. Paintings by Faith Ringold and Norman Lewis, photos by Bruce Davidson and Roy De Carava, videos of the the "I have a Dream Speech" and an interview with Malcolm X make these galleries a virtual exhibition is its own right.

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Reginald Gammon's Freedom Now! (Detail), 1963

Although not as well known today as Lewis or Ringold, Reginald Gammon was a great artist and a dedicated Civil Rights activist. Born in Philadelphia, Gammon settled in New York city after World War II service in the Navy. His Freedom Now!, a splendid evocation of the spirit of the Civil Rights movement, appeared in a major exhibition at the Christopher Street Gallery in 1965.

Gammon's Freedom Now! embodied the "spirit of the age" of the early 1960's America. This positive, almost unquestioned, belief in ourselves and our ability to overcome our failings and realize our nation's destiny, was real and widespread. And this sense of confidence and "mission" suffered a terrible, if not fatal, wound on November 22, 1963.

As I mentioned earlier in this review, the array of art and artifacts related to President Kennedy's murder and America's prolonged anguish is deeply moving.

It was only after we returned from the Jewish Museum and examined Anne's photos that we noticed a strange effect of light and reflection on one of pictures. In a amazing way, impossible to plan or orchestrate, one image was mirrored in another to create a new image with its own special impact. 

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
Cover of LIFE magazine, November 29, 1963

Looking at a photo of the LIFE magazine dedicated to the memory of President Kennedy, we saw reflected the somber face of Walter Cronkite announcing Kennedy's death, joined in a photo montage effect. This left Anne and I shaking our heads in wonderment.  It was a compelling and chilling image all in one. 

New York: 1962-1964 is a magnificent exhibition. The curators at the Jewish Museum have brought back to life a short-lived era of exceptional achievement. Their task in preparing the exhibition was made vastly more difficult by the death of the great Italian scholar who had planned and organized New York: 1962-1964. Germano Celant, died from Covid-19 before seeing the project to completion. Judging from the emotion in the voice of Claudia Gould, director of the Jewish Museum, as she spoke of Mr. Celant at the press preview, his death was a great loss.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)
 Claudia Gould, Director of the Jewish Museum, July 20, 2022

One can only admire Ms. Gould and the staff of the Jewish Museum, all the more, for completing the preparation of New York: 1962-64 and sharing it with lovers of art.

And what of Dr. Alan Solomon, the guiding mind and directing hand for much of what we see celebrated in New York: 1962-1964

Sadly, Alan Solomon too was cut-down in his prime, dying from a heart attack in 1970, aged 49. His death, like JFK's, left a void of unrealized promise, never to be fulfilled.

Text: Copyright of Ed Voves, all rights reserved                                                             
Images copyright of Anne Lloyd, all rights reserved.

Additional images, courtesy of the Jewish Museum, NYC. 

Introductory Image: Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Marjorie Strider (American, 1931-2014) Girl with Radish, 1963. Acrylic on laminated pine on Masonite panels  Ruth and Theodore Baum Collection.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964 with showing Donald Judd's Untitled, 1963. Fabricated, 1988. Cadmium red light oil on wood and purple enamel on aluminum tube. Judd Foundation, New York 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing a vintage Jukebox, courtesy of New York Jukebox.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Walter Cronkite Reporting on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, November 22, 1963. CBS Video, black and white, sound, 6 min., 22 sec. CBS News Archives. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Andy Warhol's Jackie Frieze (detail) Jackie Frieze, 1964. Silkscreen on linen: Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, gift of Beatrice Cummings Mayer 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Ruggero Orlando interviewing Alan Solomon as part of a newscast covering the Thirty-Second Venice Biennale, June 27, 1964. Broadcast by Rai (Radiotelevisione Italiana) Video, black and white, sound, 3 min., 18 sec.

Hans Namuth, Photo (1963) Robert Rauschenberg at the Jewish Museum. Installation Image. Courtesy of The Jewish Museum, New York.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925-2008) Talisman, 1958. Combine: oil, paper, printed paper, printed reproductions, wood, glass jar on metal chain, and fabric on canvas. Des Moines Art Center

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery View of New York:1962-1964, showing Harold Stevenson's The Eye of Lightning Billy, 1962. Oil on canvas, 6 joined panels 120  x 180 inches (305 x 47 cm) Collection of the Harold Stevenson Family

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Louise Nevelson's Sky Cathedral’s Presence I, 1959-1962. Painted wood and found objects: 107-120 1/8 x 21 ½ in. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing period room furnishings, including Eames Chair (Model 670) & Ottoman and Magnavox television.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Robert Rauschenberg's Glider, 1962. Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas, Menil Foundation, Houston 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Andy Warhol's Empire, excerpt of reel 1, 1964. 16mm film transferred to digital video, black and white, silent, excerpt 50 min., original 8 hr., 5 min. Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing period kitchen appliances, including Osterizer Beehive blender, Model 238, General Electric two-slice toaster, Model GE A7T86, and Lloyd’s high fidelity AM/FM tube radio, Model TM-8384.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Rudi Gernreich's Monokini, 1964 (Wool knit and elastic, produced by Harmon Knitwear) Kent State University Museum; Geoffrey Beene's Evening Dress, 1964. (Silk) Musée Mode et Dentelle de la Ville de Bruxelles, Belgium; Evelyn Jablow's, Fold-Up Dress for a Portable Society, 1964 (Silk) Cincinnati Art Museum.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Roy Lichtenstein's Thinking of Him, 1963. (Magna on canvas. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, and Marjorie Strider's Girl with Radish.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Marisol (Marisol Escobar) Self-Portrait, 1961-62. Wood, plaster, marker, paint, graphite, human teeth, gold, and plastic: 43 1/2 x 45 1/4 x 75 5/8 in. (110.5 x 114.9 x 192.1 cm) Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, Chicago, IL.Gift of Joseph and Jory Shapiro. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing Robert Rauschenberg costumes for Antic Meet. Tattooed tank top, bear or bison fur coat, and parachute dress. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Merce Cunningham Dance Company Collection. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing Isamu Noguchi's Shrine of Aphrodite for Martha Graham’s ballet Phaedra. Original, 1962, exhibition copy 2021. Wood, metal, and canvas. Noguchi Museum, New York

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Faith Ringold's American People #4: The Civil Rights Triangle, 1964. Oil on canvas: 36 3/16 x 42 ⅛ inches (92 x 107 cm) Glenstone Museum, Potomac, Maryland.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reginald Gammon's Freedom Now! (Detail), 1963. Acrylic on board. National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center, Wilberforce, Ohio

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of New York:1962-1964, showing LIFE magazine, November 29, 1963.  

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Claudia Gould,Director of the Jewish Museum, New York City, July 20, 2022.

Thursday, July 14, 2022

Art Eyewitness Review: Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color at the Metropolitan Museum of Art


Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

July 5, 2022 - March 26, 2023

Reviewed by Ed Voves

Original Photography by Anne Lloyd

The ancient Greek and Roman galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art create a high theater of drama. Here, a daily symphony of shafts of natural light and the counterpoint of shadow awakens the Met's Greek and Roman antiquities from the sleep of the ages.

Ed Voves, Photo (2022)  
Gallery view of the Greek & Roman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum

The portrait busts of Alexander and Caesar Augustus do appear about to speak. But they never do. This is a realm of marble and bronze, where noble words linger on rigid lips. Well-muscled arms and legs do not move, drained as they are of life and color. Until now.

Color has returned to the Greek and Roman galleries at the Metropolitan Museum in a fantastic exhibition, Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color. The exhibit will be on view at the Met until March 2023, an added bonus since art lovers are certainly going to want to return for for a second or third look.

                                       Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) 
          Reconstruction of a Cycladic sculpture of the Spedos group

The use of color (polychromy) is traced over the course of ancient history from the very early, Cycladic sculptures, 2700-2200 B.c., to statues of god, goddesses and heroes which once adorned the Acropolis of Athens or the Forum of Rome. Seventeen specially prepared reconstructions of ancient statues are featured in the exhibition.

Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color is a collaborative effort of the Met and a German research institute, the Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung, located in Frankfurt.  A husband-and -wife team, Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, have performed the scientific equivalent of the labors of Hercules, studying and recreating the vibrant color schemes which once enlivened the features  of statues and bas-reliefs. 

An important feature of the exhibition is the use of plaster casts, rather than original works of art. These copies are displayed in the Met's ancient Greek and Roman galleries, replicating ancient masterpieces. Each is painted with colors matching the palate of ancient artists or the metallic finish of bronze statues. The latter category includes reconstructions of the celebrated Riace warriors, discovered by a diver off the coast of Italy in 1971. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
       Gallery view of the Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color exhibit,             showing reconstructions of the Riace Warriors, created by          Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann

In a sense, the use of copies is a reversion to standards of museum curatorial policy of the nineteenth century. Recreations of famous works of art once filled the galleries of museums like the Met, but were exiled to storage rooms as actual works of ancient art were purchased or donated. Now, copies of classical masterpieces are back, this time in "living color."

Sun, wind, rain and rust have all but effaced the skin tones and the hues of garments which Greek and Roman artists skillfully imparted to sculpted portraits of the Olympian gods and lesser mortals.  

Prof. Dr. Vinzenz Brinkmann and Dr. Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, in a decades-long effort, have begun to undo the damage wrought by the hand of time. Using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis of residues of metallic corrosion and other state-of-the-art technological processes, the Brinkmann's diligent research has revealed the color-drenched world of classical Greece and Rome.                                                                                                                

         Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of the Alexander Sarcophagus (detail)

To see familiar works of Greek and Roman art newly restored to colorful "life", is both a fascinating and perplexing experience. Conflicting opinions over the relative merits of "colorized" ancient works of art versus the familiar, sun-bleached state, bring to mind the controversies over the introduction of Technicolor films during the 1930's and the "colorization" of vintage black and white classics in the 1990's. Cinema purists were appalled; movie fans  applauded and called for more.

A similar debate took place in antiquity. Many Greek philosophers, including Plato, were suspicious of the emotional effect of over-indulging in color. Likewise, the Roman scholar, Pliny the Elder, took a conservative, tradition-bound approach to color in art.

Pliny insisted that painters should follow the example of Apelles, the court-painter to Alexander, and use a four-color palette - black, white, red and yellow. Yet, across the Bay of Naples from Pliny's country estate, paintings excavated in Pompeii reveal that 29 different pigments were used in the art works preserved by the layers of volcanic ash which buried the city in the year 79 - and killed Pliny as he courageously tried to rescue survivors.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of the Small Herculaneum Woman, 30-1 B.C.

One of the most striking painted replica statues in the Chroma exhibit is known as the Small Herculaneum Woman. This is rather ironic as Herculaneum was destroyed by Vesuvius along with Pompeii in 79. 

The Brinkmann's research revealed that blue and green hues, notably absent from Pliny's restricted palate, had been extensively used on a version of the Small Herculaneum Woman excavated on the island of Delos. Numerous copies of the sculpture have been found  throughout the Graeco-Roman world.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Detail of the reconstructed Small Herculaneum Woman, 30-1 B.C.

Deploying  their high-tech toolkit, the German researchers detected that a light Egyptian blue color and a shade of green made from malachite had been used to paint the garments of the Small Herculaneum Woman from Delos. The artistry involved in applying these scientific insights to the replica is positively sensational, making it a true work or art in its own right.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Gallery view of the Chroma exhibit, showing the reconstruction of the Small Herculaneum Woman (created 2019) 

The noted British scholar, Philip Ball, in his book, Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color, believes that artists in Greece and Rome largely ignored the strictures of Plato and Pliny. The advance of the Greeks to the frontiers of India during the campaigns of Alexander brought them into contact with a whole range of new pigments. During the Hellenistic Age which followed Alexander there appear to have been few inhibitions about using the new colors.                                                                 

One of the key works in appreciating ancient color is known as the Treu Head. The original was excavated on the Esquiline Hill in the heart of Rome. It is the head of a statue of Venus or Minerva (Athena), created during  the years, 140-150. 

Unknown artist, Treu Head, Late Hadrianic/Antonine , A.D. 140-150

When the Treu Head was unearthed in the early 1880s, traces of color were clearly visible.  An exhaustive effort to examine the head was undertaken by a German scholar, Georg Treu, before it went on display in the British Museum.

The Treu Head is one of the key works of art in the study of polychromy in ancient art. The original is too fragile to travel for international exhibits. But the Brinkmanns pulled-out all the "stops" in their replica to show the stages by which an ancient artist created lifelike features  for this goddess. Particularly interesting is the carbon-black under-drawing, first applied to the marble head to define the features, especially the eyes, as shown here.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Study I of the Treu Head, created in 2014

As works of art like the Treu Head were excavated with traces of paint clearly discernible, scholars were faced with a quandary. Clearly, the ancient use of color served important purposes or satisfied cultural tastes in antiquity. But aesthetic sensibilities in the West, especially since the Renaissance, had been shaped by the design vs. color debate, with the highest accolades going to design, the careful crafting of shape whether in drawing or sculpture.

This quandary remains. Would we today prefer museum galleries displaying row after row of painted statues and bas-reliefs from antiquity rather than time-worn examples which more clearly reveal the creative genius of the sculptors who made them? 

A little time in the company of one of the most infamous men from ancient Rome may help answer that question.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Marble Portrait Bust of Emperor Gaius/Caligula, A.D. 37-41

One of the premier works in the Met's collection of Roman art is a portrait bust of Emperor Gaius, the notorious Caligula. In the Met's likeness of Gaius, the exceptional skill in the sculpting of the emperor's features is beyond dispute. This is a work of three-dimensional artistry of the highest caliber. After examining it for a while, we are left pondering if Caligula really was the most "ignoble" Roman of them all.

The painted head of Gaius/Caligua leads to a very different reaction. It should be noted that the Brinkmanns selected a slightly different portrait bust for their model, but not enough to account for the shock value that one feels when looking at the painted Caligula.  

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of Portrait Bust of Gaius/Caligula (created 2005)

There are no doubts, no questions of whether or not Caligula was the monster as portrayed by hostile historians like Suetonius. Look into those eyes and one sees the menace of an autocratic ruler which can so easily turn into madness.

Polychromy can obscure or deflect our attention from the design values of ancient sculptures like the Met's portrait bust of Gaius/Caligula. But the reason for painting statues is clear enough. The color applied to statues in ancient times was chiefly intended to influence and educate a public audience, looking from a distance, rather than for the close study by scholars working in elite institutions like the Library of Alexandria - or The Met. 

The spectacular uniform and equipment of the statue of a kneeling archer on view at the Met is a case in point. The original marble archer was part of a Trojan War battle scene positioned on the roof pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, located on the island of Aigina, south of Athens. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
       Reconstruction of the Marble Archer in Scythian Costume,         
from the West Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, ca. 480 

Most of the details of the kneeling archer which we can see at close hand would have been obscured to visitors to the temple, standing below. However, the vibrant colors, especially of the exotic headgear, would have insured that the identity of the archer, an Amazon warrior fighting on the side of the Trojans, would have been clearly apparent.

Visitors to Athens would also have seen the figure of a winged Sphinx crouching on top of a tall marble stele or grave marker, dedicated to a youth and a little girl. This much-loved Finial in the Form of a Sphinx, which has been in the collection of the Met since the 1930's, was sculpted around 530 B.C. 

  Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Marble Capital and Finial in the Form of a Sphinx, ca. 530 B.C.

Greek art of these years, known as the Archaic period, is especially expressive. To facilitate study, the Met displays the actual Winged Sphinx at ground level, with a cast copy on top of the column, where it originally perched. Now a third version, modeled and painted by the Brinkmanns keeps them company in Gallery 154.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of a Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx, 2022

This Reconstruction of a Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx, to give this wondrous beast its full title, is the show stopper of the exhibition. The Sphinx was created specifically for the Chroma exhibition at the Met, with Dr. Brinkmann's team working in close collaboration with the Met's Greek and Roman curators and the museum's Objects Conservation and Scientific Research departments.

Rather than recapitulate the backstory of the creation of the Winged Sphinx replica, it is far more appropriate at this point to highlight the Met's exhibit webpage. Here a full array of useful digital resources is deployed, ready for detailed study. Even by the Met's accustomed standards of excellence, these exhibition aids are truly remarkable.

Of particular value to me, in reviewing the Chroma exhibition, was the glossary page which provided pithy explanations of the technical tool-kit used by the Brinkmanns and the Met curators. Also, the glossary definitions extend to information on the types of pigments used by ancient artists.

The Met also has a special feature for smartphone users, entitled The Chroma AR experience. With this feature, they will be able to follow the reconstruction process of the Winged Sphinx. Chroma AR can be accessed from the Met web page devoted to the exhibition.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Gallery view of the Chroma exhibit, showing reconstructions of the bronze statues, the Terme ruler (left) and the Terme Boxer

One of the surprises of Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color is the significant role of bronze casts in the story of polychromy. Given the high artistic value which the Greeks and Romans attached to bronze statues, it makes sense that these metallic portraits should have received added details like inlaid eyes. But close study of two bronze statues, known as the Terme Ruler and Terme Boxer offer fascinating evidence of how the ancients' love of dramatic effect extended to unexpected embellishments.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of The Terme Boxer (The Boxer at Rest), 2022

I was particularly fascinated to study the reconstruction of the Terme Boxer. Back in 2015, a "once in a lifetime" exhibit of ancient bronze statues, organized by the Getty Museum and the National Gallery, had included the Terme Boxer in its lineup. In that exhibit, the bronze statue was entitled "Boxer at Rest." 

When I saw the ancient original, I was really impressed with the fidelity to lifelike details, especially the boxer's battered, "cauliflower" ears. However, the reconstruction of the Terme Boxer has taken the delineation of his scars and bruises to a level that an unpracticed eye, like mine, could not easily detect.

According to the commentary on the Met's web page, ancient masters of bronze casting used a wide range of techniques to enhance their statues.

Scientific research and ancient written sources show that colorful effects were achieved via multiple methods, including the use of different alloys during casting; artificial patination with sulfurous substances; and the addition of bitumen lacquer, other metals (including gold, silver, copper, tin, and lead), and precious stones. The naturalistic effect of these sculptures was apparently so strong in ancient times that many visitors to the sanctuaries believed them to be alive.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of the Terme Boxer (detail), 2022

Looking at the Terme Boxer, one might well believe him to be alive. The ingenious effort that went into creating that "trick of the eye" is astonishing. For instance, the bruise under the boxer's right eye was produced by applying a sheet of bronze containing a high amount of lead, which "enabled an artificial patination in a highly realistic violet color."

With all of bruises, broken nose and bleeding wounds, there is no wonder that his earlier title, Boxer at Rest, may have seemed inaccurate. Indeed, close technical inspection has lead to a bold new theory about the identity of the Terme Boxer and the Terme Ruler.

The two bronze sculptures were excavated at the same site, in Rome, in 1885. Both figures share a distinctive attribute: the swollen "cauliflower" ears of a pugilist. Yet, there is quite a difference between the two. While the dejected Terme Boxer hunches in pain and exhaustion, the Terme Ruler stands in a triumphant pose. Could there be a connection?

By pairing the two statues in a joint narrative and scouring the record of Greek mythology, scholars now conjecture that the pair represent characters from the tale of Jason and the Argonauts. One of Jason's crew, Polydeukes, (the Terme Ruler) bested Amykos (the Terme Boxer), in a boxing match. 

There were alternative endings for the bout between Amykos and Polydeukes. In one version, Amykos, a brutal brigand fond of beating people to death, was killed. In the second, which we see depicted  in the Met's ancient Greek and Roman gallery, Polydeukes showed mercy to his defeated adversary, on condition that he cease his career of violence.

A dramatic story like this, complete with moral lesson, certainly adds to the status of Terme Ruler and the Terme Boxer, now that we know their likely  identity. Just as we can now match the features of these bronze masterworks to characters in mythology, so did people in the ancient cities see them as the face of the gods and heroes.


Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Reconstruction of a statue of the Goddess Artemis, created in 2010

Color in ancient art was thus a major feature of ancient religion. Over a great span of time, the priests and temple authorities in Greece and Rome raised-up colorfully painted statues depicting their deities.

These colorful representations of the traditional pantheon of Greece and Rome continued to resonate even after many people had come to doubt in the existence of Zeus and the Olympian gods. Indeed, there is a direct correlation and continuing timeline from the brightly painted art works of Graeco-Roman civilization to the value system of Christianity.

Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, a Roman aristocrat serving the Christian Church launched a hugely influential cultural program which made use of the artistic techniques of the Greeks and Romans.

"What writing conveys to those who can read," Pope Gregory I (540-604) proclaimed, "a picture shows to the ignorant ... and for that very reason a picture is like a lesson for the people."

Drawing upon the Greek and Roman use of color on statues, bas-reliefs and paintings, Christian artists would go on to create the mosaics of Cefalu and Monreale, the stained glass windows of Chartres and Giotto's Arena Chapel frescoes. 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  
Gallery 154 at the Met, showing the reconstruction of the Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx (left) and the original Sphinx (far right)

The Met's outstanding exhibition Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color and the incredible work of Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann have many lessons to teach. But the greatest one is this - where the visual depiction of authentic religious belief is concerned, there are no gray areas.


Text: Copyright of Ed Voves, all rights reserved   

Images copyright of Anne Lloyd, all rights reserved

Introductory Image: Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reconstruction of a Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx. Details below)

Ed Voves, Photo (2022)  Gallery view of the Greek & Roman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum, April 2022.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Reconstruction of a Cycladic Sculpture of the Spedos Group (Detail), created 2006. Synthetic marble, natural pigments in egg tempera: 14 15/16 × 2 3/8 × 3 1/8 in. (38 × 6 × 8 cm). Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung.POL.002/St.P 695

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Gallery view of the Chroma: Ancient Sculpture in Color exhibit, showing reconstructions of the Riace Warriors, created by Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, 2015-16.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Reconstruction of the Alexander Sarcophagus (detail), created 2007. Synthetic material, natural pigments in egg tempera:22 1/4 × 54 1/8 × 7 7/8 in. (56.5 × 137.5 × 20 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.009/St.P 701

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reconstruction of the Small Herculaneum Woman, 30-1 B.C., created 2019. Marble stucco on plaster cast, natural pigments in egg tempera, gold foil: 72 13/16 × 22 1/16 × 25 9/16 in. (185 × 56 × 65 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung.POL.007/LG 223

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Detail of the reconstructed Small Herculaneum Woman, 30-1 B.C.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of the Chroma exhibit, showing the reconstruction of the Small Herculaneum Woman (created 2019).
Unknown artist, Treu Head, Late Hadrianic/Antonine , A.D. 140-150. Parian marble, with traces of paint: 38.10 cm. (Height) British Museum. #1884,0617.1

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Study I of the Treu Head (created 2014.
Marble stucco on plaster cast after 3D scan, natural pigments in egg tempera:14 9/16 × 10 1/4 × 10 1/4 in. (37 × 26 × 26 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.016 DEP.64

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Marble Portrait Bust of the Emperor Gaius, known as Caligula. Julio-Claudian, A.D. 37–41. Marble: H. 20 in. x  7 1/16 in (50.8 cm x 18 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Reconstruction (B) of Portrait Bust of Gaius/Caligula (created 2005). Synthetic marble cast, natural pigments in egg tempera: 11 × 9 1/16 × 7 1/16 in. (28 × 23 × 18 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.013  St.P 691

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Reconstruction of the Marble Archer in Scythian Costume, from the West Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, ca. 480 B.C. (Variant C, created 2006) Marble stucco on PMMA, natural pigments in egg tempera, tin, wood, gold foil: 37 13/16 × 30 5/16 × 21 5/8 in. (96 × 77 × 55 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.008/St.P 947

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Marble Capital and Finial in the Form of a Sphinx. Archaic, ca. 530 B.C. Parian marble: H. with akroterion 56 1/8 in. (142.6 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Munsey Fund, 1936, 1938. # 11.185d, x

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reconstruction of a Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx, collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Created 2022). Cast from polymethyl metacrylate, natural pigments in egg tempera, gold foil, and
copper: 33 7/16 × 11 × 22 7/16 in. (85 × 28 × 57 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.017

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery view of the Chroma exhibit, showing reconstructions of the bronze statues, the Terme Ruler (left) and the Terme Boxer, created by Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, 2018.

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reconstruction of the Terme Boxer (The Boxer at Rest) (Created 2018). Bronze cast: 50 3/8 × 43 5/16 × 21 5/8 in. (128 × 110 × 55 cm) Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.010 St.P 722

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022)  Reconstruction of the Terme Boxer (detail). 

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Reconstruction of a Statue of the Goddess Artemis. (Variant A, Created 2010).  Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Liebieghaus Skulpturen Sammlung. POL.012

Anne Lloyd, Photo (2022) Gallery 154 at the Metroplitan Museum of Art, showing the reconstruction of the Marble Finial in the Form of a Sphinx (left) and the original Sphinx (far right)